The correct operation and maintenance of the vertical machining center is one of the key factors for the correct use of CNC equipment. Proper operation and use can prevent abnormal wear of the machine tool and avoid unexpected failures; doing good daily maintenance of the vertical machining center can keep the vertical machining center equipment in a good technical state, delay the degradation process, and find and eliminate hidden troubles in time To ensure safe operation.
The use environment of vertical machining center
In order to increase the service life of CNC equipment, it is generally required to avoid direct sunlight and other heat radiation, and avoid places that are too humid, dusty or corrosive. Precision CNC equipment should be kept away from equipment with large vibration, such as punching machines and forging equipment.
1、 Good power supply guarantee
In order to avoid the impact of large power fluctuations / (more than ± 10% /) and possible instantaneous interference signals, CNC equipment generally uses dedicated line power supply / (such as separate from the low-voltage distribution room for CNC machine tools /) or additional voltage regulator Devices, etc., can reduce the impact of power supply quality and electrical interference.
2、Formulate effective operating procedures
In the use and management of CNC machine tools, a series of practical and effective operating procedures should be formulated. For example, lubrication, maintenance, reasonable use and standardized handover system are the main contents of the use and management of CNC equipment. Formulating and observing the operation regulations is one of the important measures to ensure the safe operation of CNC machine tools. Practice has proved that many failures can be reduced by following the operating procedures.
3、Vertical machining center is not suitable for long-term storage
After the purchase of the vertical machining center, it must be fully utilized, especially in the first year of use, so that the weak links that are prone to failure are exposed as soon as possible and can be eliminated during the warranty period. During processing, try to reduce the opening and closing of the spindle of the CNC machine tool to reduce the wear on clutches, gears and other devices. When there is no processing task, the CNC machine tool should also be powered on regularly, preferably 1 to 2 times a week, each time running for about 1 hour, to use the heat of the machine tool to reduce the humidity in the machine, so that the electronic components will not get wet At the same time, it can also find out if there is a low battery alarm in time to prevent the loss of system setting parameters.
Maintenance of CNC system
1. Strictly abide by the operation regulations and daily maintenance system
Vertical machining center operators must strictly abide by the operating procedures and daily maintenance systems. The quality of the operators ’technical qualities is an important factor affecting the frequency of failures. When the machine tool breaks down, the operator should pay attention to keep the scene and explain the situation before and after the failure to the maintenance personnel to facilitate analysis and diagnosis of the cause of the failure and eliminate it in time.
2. Prevent dust and dirt from entering the CNC device
In the air of the machining workshop, there will generally be oil mist, dust and even metal powder. Once they fall on the circuit board or electronic device in the CNC system, it is easy to cause the insulation resistance between the components to drop, even causing damage to the components and the circuit board . In order to allow the CNC system to work for a long period of time in the summer, some users take the door of the CNC cabinet to dissipate heat. This is an extremely undesirable method, which will eventually lead to accelerated damage to the CNC system. And strong electric cabinet door.
3. Prevent the system from overheating
Should check whether the cooling fans on the CNC cabinet work normally. Check whether the air duct filter is blocked every six months or quarters. If there is too much dust accumulation on the filter net and it is not cleaned in time, it will cause the temperature in the CNC cabinet to be too high.
4. Periodic inspection and replacement of DC motor brushes
Excessive wear of DC motor brushes will affect the performance of the motor and even cause damage to the motor. For this purpose, the motor brushes should be regularly inspected and replaced. CNC lathes, CNC milling machines, machining centers, etc., should be inspected annually.
5. Periodic inspection and replacement of storage batteries
Generally, a rechargeable battery maintenance circuit is provided for the CMOS RAM storage device in the numerical control system to ensure that the contents of the memory can be maintained when the system is not powered. Under normal circumstances, even if it has not failed, it should be replaced once a year to ensure the normal operation of the system. The replacement of the battery should be carried out under the power supply state of the numerical control system to prevent the information in the RAM from being lost during the replacement.
6. Maintenance of spare circuit board
When the spare printed circuit board is not used for a long time, it should be regularly installed in the CNC system and powered on for a period of time to prevent damage.
Maintenance of mechanical parts
1. Main drive chain maintenance
Regularly adjust the degree of tightness of the main shaft drive belt to prevent the loss of rotation caused by the belt slip; check the constant temperature oil tank of the main shaft lubrication, adjust the temperature range, replenish the amount of oil in time, and clean the filter; after a long time use , Will produce a gap, affect the clamping of the tool, the displacement of the hydraulic cylinder piston needs to be adjusted in time.
2. Maintenance of ball screw thread pair
Regularly check and adjust the axial clearance of the screw thread pair to ensure the reverse transmission accuracy and axial rigidity; regularly check whether the connection between the screw and the bed is loose; the screw protection device should be replaced in time to prevent dust or Chips enter.
3. Maintenance of tool magazine and tool change manipulator
It is strictly forbidden to put overweight and long tools into the tool magazine to avoid the tool falling or collision between the tool and the workpiece and fixture during the tool change; often check whether the zero return position of the tool magazine is correct and check whether the machine tool spindle returns to the tool change point In place, and adjust in time; when starting up, the tool magazine and the manipulator should be run empty, check whether each part works normally, especially whether each stroke switch and solenoid valve can operate normally; check whether the tool is locked tightly on the manipulator Normally, it should be dealt with in time.
Hydraulic and pneumatic system maintenance
Regularly clean or replace the filters or sub-filters of each lubricating, hydraulic and pneumatic system; periodically check the oil quality of the hydraulic system, add and replace hydraulic oil; regularly drain the water filter of the pneumatic system.
Maintenance of machine tool accuracy
Regularly check and correct the machine tool level and mechanical accuracy. There are two methods for correcting mechanical accuracy, both soft and hard. The soft method is mainly through system parameter compensation, such as screw backlash compensation, coordinate positioning fixed point compensation, machine tool reference point position correction, etc .; the hard method generally needs to be performed during machine tool overhaul, such as rail repair, ball Pre-tighten the screw nut to adjust the backlash, etc.