CNC machine tool is the abbreviation of digital control machine tool, which is an automatic machine tool equipped with a program control system.
The control system can logically process the program specified by the control code or other symbolic instructions and decode it, so that the machine tool operates and the parts are processed.
Control unit of CNC machine tool
The operation and monitoring of the CNC machine tool are all completed in this CNC unit, which is the brain of the CNC machine tool.
Compared with ordinary machine tools, CNC machine tools have the following characteristics:
● High processing precision and stable processing quality;
● Multi-coordinate linkage can be performed, and parts with complex shapes can be processed;
● When the machining parts change, generally only need to change the NC program, which can save production preparation time;
● The precision of the machine tool is high, the rigidity is high, and the favorable processing amount can be selected, and the productivity is high (generally 3 to 5 times that of ordinary machine tools);
● High degree of automation of the machine tool can reduce labor intensity;
● Higher requirements on the quality of the operator, and higher technical requirements on the maintenance personnel.
CNC machine tools are generally composed of the following parts:
● Main machine, he is the subject of CNC machine tools, including machine parts, column, spindle, feed mechanism and other mechanical parts. He is a mechanical component used to complete various cutting processes.
● CNC device is the core of CNC machine tool, including hardware (printed circuit board, CRT display, key box, paper tape reader, etc.) and corresponding software, used to input digital parts program, and complete the storage of input information and data The conversion, interpolation calculation and various control functions are realized.
● Drive device, he is the drive component of the CNC machine tool actuator, including the spindle drive unit, feed unit, spindle motor and feed motor, etc. Under the control of the numerical control device, he realizes the spindle and feed drive through the electric or electro-hydraulic servo system. When several feeds are linked, the processing of positioning, straight line, plane curve and space curve can be completed.
● Auxiliary device, some necessary supporting components of the index-controlled machine tool, to ensure the operation of the CNC machine tool, such as cooling, chip removal, lubrication, lighting, monitoring, etc. It includes hydraulic and pneumatic devices, chip removal devices, exchange worktables, CNC rotary tables and CNC indexing heads, as well as cutting tools and monitoring and detection devices.
● Programming and other auxiliary equipment can be used to program and store parts outside the machine.
Since the first CNC machine tool in the world was developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1952, CNC machine tools have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, especially in the automotive, aerospace, and military industries. Whether it is in hardware or software , Have developed rapidly.
The machining center is a highly automated multi-function CNC machine tool with a tool magazine and automatic tool changer. After the workpiece is clamped once in the machining center, it can complete a variety of processes on more than two surfaces, and has a variety of tool change or tool selection functions, thereby greatly improving production efficiency.
Machining centers can be divided into two categories: boring, milling and turning according to their processing procedures, and can be divided into three-axis, four-axis and five-axis machining centers according to the number of control axes.